This is a hard post to write, not only because I am not entirely certain where I stand on this issue, but that the answer to this question appears for force the answers to a number of other questions. My goal in this post is not to vindicate Cromwell. I want to add clarity to a few key moments in English history where Cromwell clashed with the Covenanters. Ecclesiastically, I side with the Covenanters. While I have an appreciation for many Independents, I think it is problematic. Further, the Covenanters’ testimony during the Killing Times is nothing short of awe-inspiring. However, some problems remain and I will try to explore these:
- Cromwell may be a covenant-breaker, but how was Scots’ aligning with Charles II not a similar violation of the Covenant on the grounds of allying with malignants? While Rutherford may have had distaste for Cromwell, I think he realized this very point (cf Coffey, 251).
- If (1) is true, and if Covenanting Scots had even fought against Charles I and his bishops previously, as they had (Fissel: 1994), then on what grounds can later Covenanter tracts condemn Cromwell as “the Usurper?”
- Following (2), isn’t it likely that Cromwell would have left alone Presbyterian Scotland had they not crowned a Stuart Monarch? Cromwell, being a military and political genius, saw it as cementing a Stuart (and probably quasi-papist, Charles II’s swearing to the Covenant notwithstanding) political power to his north, which would have been a danger. Cromwell didn’t necessarily want to invade Scotland for invasion’s sake. The Scots had already proved their mettle earlier and have even defeated some of Cromwell’s lieutenants earlier. Indeed, even when Cromwell brought the bulk of his army to Scotland, he found himself in a terrible trap. Inexplicably, the Scots abandoned their military vantage point, met Cromwell on equal footing, and lost their army, and soon their liberty. Precisely who is at fault here?
- Following (3), even a Covenanter like Maurice Grant admits that Cromwell’s occupation of Scotland silenced many church disputes and allowed the church to flourish spiritually (Grant, 37).
- This is not to say that Cromwell was 100% in the right. It is sad that Christopher Love was executed. Assuming he was innocent of those charges, exactly how was correspondence with Catholic monarchs in Europe supposed to be viewed by Cromwell? I say this as someone who loves Thomas Watson, for example.
Coffey, John. Politics, Religion and the British Revolutions: The Mind of Samuel Rutherford (Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History).
Fissell, Mark. The Bishops’ Wars: Charles I’s Campaigns against Scotland, 1638-1640 (Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History).
Grant, Maurice. The Lion of the Covenant: The Story of Richard Cameron.