Justification by faith *how?*

Many cavail against the Reformed doctrine of justification by faith alone, noting how it (superficially) seems to be against James’s words.   Admittedly, this is a tough point for Genesio-Lutherans to answer, but if we understand the causal models (instrumental, efficient, final, etc) correctly, there is no problem.   We believe that works function as a subalternate final cause in justification, and in that sense we are in complete agreement with James 2.   The synergist, by contrast, has a much more difficult position in dealing with Paul’s claims.  James Buchanan relates Melancthon’s words, “If the exclusive term, only, is disliked, let them erase the Apostle’s corresponding terms, freely, and without works” (Buchanan, 129).